|Week 06 - Building Plan, Section and Elevation|
|Learning Objectives||This class will show examples of architectural orthographic drawings and introduce the method of creating orthographic drawings from a 3 dimensional model in Rhino. Students will have a chance to recap the technique they learned for producing their double negative drawings and learn further what elements should be add to depicted the space in architectural drawings.|
Architectural Graphic projection
To start working on creating plan and section drawings, we first take a look at this overview of architectural drawing types and methods to orient ourselves with the general concepts of graphic projection in architectural design.
Parallel vs Perspective Projections
- Parallel projections
- Projection rays are parallel to one another. Includes all drawing types listed above.
- Perspective projections
- Projection rays are converge at a "station point" representing the disembodied eye of a viewer. Includes 1, 2, 3, and 4 point perspectives.
Distinctions Among Parallel Projections
- Orthographic projections
- Projection rays are parallel to one another, and perpendicular to both the image plane and a dominant plane of the object depicted.
- Axonometric projections
- Projection rays are parallel to one another, and perpendicular to the image plane - but in no specific relationship to any dominant plane of the object depicted.
- Oblique projections
- Projection rays are parallel to one another - but non-parallel with the image plane and in no specific relationship to any dominant plane of the object depicted.
The images below will help you to understand the concept of orthographic drawings in the architectural context with basic examples of each drawing type.
- A plan is an orthographic projection representing a horizontal cut through an object or building. By convention, a plan is taken relative to an occupiable space or walking surface such that the "cut plane" of the plan is positioned 4' above this surface. This convention may be broken in certain cases, such as depicting a sloped floor or in order to depict the visual experience of a space with more fidelity. In more rare cases, the cut plane of plans may sometimes be "broken" or "jogged" in order to illustrate a specific architectural idea.
- In a conventional plan, lines depicting object further away from the cut plane are drawn progressively thinner, following the conventions of drawing in elevation. Objects above or behind the cut plane are dashed.
- Where to cut a section is up to you – it is important to cut in areas that demonstrate the BEST and most INTERESTING spaces within the building. Typically, you could not cut through an elevator or stairwell. Auditoriums or light-wells make for good section cuts. Similar to plans, the cut line is the darkest line.
- Technically a type of section, an elevation is an orthographic projection representing a vertical view of the outside of a building, looking back at the face. Elevations are typically used to illustrate how the building will look from the outside.
- Like all orthograpic projections, an elevation employs a drawing plane (or "cut plane") plane. Since this plane is positioned such that it does not intersect the building in question, no section cut of the building is drawn. However, it is important to note that, when drawing a building on site that the site itself, including any adjacent buildings or topography, must be represented in section when drawing an elevation.
Line Weights, Styles, and Types
Architecture conventions for individual drawing types: http://studiomaven.org/index.php?title=Tool:Part_306409
Making Orthographic Drawings from Rhino Model
- This process is very similar to the workflow creating orthographic drawings of the double negative, let's go through the workflow above learning how to produce plans and sections of a building model.
Making Orthographic Drawings with Site Context
These workflows are here to help over the weekend with drawing:
- Designing with and Finalizing Extracted linework
- This workflow goes beyond the basic process of Make2d to discuss the importance of editing and adding on to linework to produce more detailed architectural drawings.